Iran Political System
The politics of Iran take place in a framework of a theocracy. There is a supreme leather (Ayatollah Khamenei) which is elected by “Assembly of Experts”. This leader is the head of the whole country and so the highest ranking political and religious authority. Iran also has an elected president and parliament (or Majlis).
There are two main parties in Iran: Conservative and Reform. After the forced war with Iraq ended in 1988, reformist and progressive candidates won four out of six presidential elections in Iran (Hashemi Rafsanjani, Khatami, Rouhani) and the conservative party won twice (Ahmadinejad).
President Hassan Rouhani, as the head of current government of Iran, belongs to the reform party. With his and his team especially foreign minister, Mohammad Javad Zarif, effort Iran could solve one of its recently most important problems with the globe, nuclear program.
With a moderate diplomacy, Rouhani’s government could get a reasonable relation with other countries and prevent severe challenges.
Rouhani’ Ministry of Economy, has started many economy reform plans since 2013. One of the most important economic plans was to decrease inflation rate as a critical index in Iran’ economy. Dr. Tayyebnia as the economy minister and his team, could decrease double and even three digits high inflation index to a single digit, caused by wrong economic strategies of previous government.
In the matter of social and culture, he really showed the true color of a reformist. he encouraged personal freedom and free access to information. He also improved women’s rights by appointing female foreign ministry spokespeople. He also has stopped conservative party members to disrupt his plans, especially during Iran and 5+1 negotiations.
Rouhani government, as a whole, could relief and ease the hard social and domestic political situation of Iranians so that they could tolerate hard economic situations more easily. Then, the presidency of Rouhani is a good opportunity for foreign investors who want to invest in Iran, the sooner the better.
Diplomatic relations of Iran can be divided in two section: before Islamic Revolution and after Islamic Revolution. In the first period, before Islamic Revolution, Iran had relations to almost every country in the world and there were no specific restriction and limit. But of course, in different domestic and foreign political situations and different government, Iran had closer diplomatic relations with some countries.
After Islamic Revolution, however, because of the main idea of this revolution, Iran cut its ties with bot United States and Israel. Apart from these two countries, Iran has had many disconnections and reconnection in its diplomatic relations with some countries around the world.
Iran, after the revolution, has suffered economically from US sanctions, which mainly was due to Iran’ social and political situations. These sanctions, which first were only on behalf of US, because of US political and economic influence in the world, it turned to be Europe and some Asian Countries sanctions as well.
There have been some challenges between Canada and Iran Since 2011 and the two country preferred to have only interest section rather than having an independent embassy. But after new presidential election in Canada, diplomatic relations of the two country have become more strong and two of them are negotiating about opening the embassies again.
Saudi Arabia has had not really good relation with Iran as an Islamic Republic, and always has complained about Iran foreign political strategies toward other countries especially middle east and Arab countries. Since 2015 and Mena accident, Iran and Saudi Arabia have had many challenges leading to Saudi Arabia cut its relations with Iran.